Al Gore; We Can Solve The Climate Crisis



Remix: Al Gore’s Challenge to Repower America

copyright © 2008 Betsy L. Angert

Former Vice President Albert Gore challenges Congress, corporations, citizens in this country, and people planet wide to consider crucial connections, and what might be done to correct what appears to be an eminent disaster.  Globally,  civilization depends on us, and our commitment to change.  Currently, the situation is critical.  Catastrophes exist around every corner.  The economy is shaky.  Employment opportunities are limited.  Weather is weird.  Most experts believe the “energy tsunami” seems to have effected the environment.  Forecasts for the future are not good.  We can no longer count the years until our demise.  The days are numbered.  Too many species are now extinct; more are threatened.  All people on this planet must acknowledge we are in peril.  There is a climate crisis.

Those who wish to believe humans have no effect on the environment need only turn on the television or tune in the radio.  Everyday there are reports that document extraordinary and dire weather conditions.  If this information does not convince cynics, perhaps a more personal tour will.  Travel to your local major metropolis, or better yet, journey to the Far East.  The conditions in China might make an impression.  With little care for contaminates, or regulations to reduce pollutants, poisons visibly linger in the air and scorch the lungs of those who live in this industrialized continent.  Sewage improperly disposed of has caused rivers to rot.  Noxious waste has destroyed waterways at home and abroad.  The land is also filled with toxin.

The air is no longer clean.  The seas are soiled.  The land is filled with impurities.  Soon there will be nowhere to hide from what humans wrought.  Thus, the challenge, as presented by Nobel Peace Prize awardee.  Please do more than peruse.  Take the initiative and repower the property Mother Nature bequeathed.

Ladies and gentlemen:

There are times in the history of our nation when our very way of life depends upon dispelling illusions and awakening to the challenge of a present danger.  In such moments, we are called upon to move quickly and boldly to shake off complacency, throw aside old habits and rise, clear-eyed and alert, to the necessity of big changes.  Those who, for whatever reason, refuse to do their part must either be persuaded to join the effort or asked to step aside. This is such a moment. The survival of the United States of America as we know it is at risk. And even more – if more should be required – the future of human civilization is at stake.

I don’t remember a time in our country when so many things seemed to be going so wrong simultaneously. Our economy is in terrible shape and getting worse, gasoline prices are increasing dramatically, and so are electricity rates. Jobs are being outsourced. Home mortgages are in trouble. Banks, automobile companies and other institutions we depend upon are under growing pressure. Distinguished senior business leaders are telling us that this is just the beginning unless we find the courage to make some major changes quickly.

The climate crisis, in particular, is getting a lot worse – much more quickly than predicted. Scientists with access to data from Navy submarines traversing underneath the North polar ice cap have warned that there is now a 75 percent chance that within five years the entire ice cap will completely disappear during the summer months. This will further increase the melting pressure on Greenland. According to experts, the Jakobshavn glacier, one of Greenland’s largest, is moving at a faster rate than ever before, losing 20 million tons of ice every day, equivalent to the amount of water used every year by the residents of New York City.

Two major studies from military intelligence experts have warned our leaders about the dangerous national security implications of the climate crisis, including the possibility of hundreds of millions of climate refugees destabilizing nations around the world.

Just two days ago, 27 senior statesmen and retired military leaders warned of the national security threat from an “energy tsunami” that would be triggered by a loss of our access to foreign oil. Meanwhile, the war in Iraq continues, and now the war in Afghanistan appears to be getting worse.

And by the way, our weather sure is getting strange, isn’t it? There seem to be more tornadoes than in living memory, longer droughts, bigger downpours and record floods. Unprecedented fires are burning in California and elsewhere in the American West. Higher temperatures lead to drier vegetation that makes kindling for mega-fires of the kind that have been raging in Canada, Greece, Russia, China, South America, Australia and Africa. Scientists in the Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science at Tel Aviv University tell us that for every one degree increase in temperature, lightning strikes will go up another 10 percent. And it is lightning, after all, that is principally responsible for igniting the conflagration in California today.

Like a lot of people, it seems to me that all these problems are bigger than any of the solutions that have thus far been proposed for them, and that’s been worrying me.

I’m convinced that one reason we’ve seemed paralyzed in the face of these crises is our tendency to offer old solutions to each crisis separately – without taking the others into account. And these outdated proposals have not only been ineffective – they almost always make the other crises even worse.

Yet when we look at all three of these seemingly intractable challenges at the same time, we can see the common thread running through them, deeply ironic in its simplicity: our dangerous over-reliance on carbon-based fuels is at the core of all three of these challenges – the economic, environmental and national security crises.

We’re borrowing money from China to buy oil from the Persian Gulf to burn it in ways that destroy the planet. Every bit of that’s got to change.

But if we grab hold of that common thread and pull it hard, all of these complex problems begin to unravel and we will find that we’re holding the answer to all of them right in our hand.

The answer is to end our reliance on carbon-based fuels.

In my search for genuinely effective answers to the climate crisis, I have held a series of “solutions summits” with engineers, scientists, and CEOs. In those discussions, one thing has become abundantly clear: when you connect the dots, it turns out that the real solutions to the climate crisis are the very same measures needed to renew our economy and escape the trap of ever-rising energy prices. Moreover, they are also the very same solutions we need to guarantee our national security without having to go to war in the Persian Gulf.

What if we could use fuels that are not expensive, don’t cause pollution and are abundantly available right here at home?

We have such fuels. Scientists have confirmed that enough solar energy falls on the surface of the earth every 40 minutes to meet 100 percent of the entire world’s energy needs for a full year. Tapping just a small portion of this solar energy could provide all of the electricity America uses.

And enough wind power blows through the Midwest corridor every day to also meet 100 percent of US electricity demand. Geothermal energy, similarly, is capable of providing enormous supplies of electricity for America.

The quickest, cheapest and best way to start using all this renewable energy is in the production of electricity. In fact, we can start right now using solar power, wind power and geothermal power to make electricity for our homes and businesses.

But to make this exciting potential a reality, and truly solve our nation’s problems, we need a new start.

That’s why I’m proposing today a strategic initiative designed to free us from the crises that are holding us down and to regain control of our own destiny. It’s not the only thing we need to do. But this strategic challenge is the lynchpin of a bold new strategy needed to re-power America.

Today I challenge our nation to commit to producing 100 percent of our electricity from renewable energy and truly clean carbon-free sources within 10 years.

This goal is achievable, affordable and transformative. It represents a challenge to all Americans – in every walk of life: to our political leaders, entrepreneurs, innovators, engineers, and to every citizen.

A few years ago, it would not have been possible to issue such a challenge. But here’s what’s changed: the sharp cost reductions now beginning to take place in solar, wind, and geothermal power – coupled with the recent dramatic price increases for oil and coal – have radically changed the economics of energy.

When I first went to Congress 32 years ago, I listened to experts testify that if oil ever got to $35 a barrel, then renewable sources of energy would become competitive. Well, today, the price of oil is over $135 per barrel. And sure enough, billions of dollars of new investment are flowing into the development of concentrated solar thermal, photovoltaics, windmills, geothermal plants, and a variety of ingenious new ways to improve our efficiency and conserve presently wasted energy.

And as the demand for renewable energy grows, the costs will continue to fall. Let me give you one revealing example: the price of the specialized silicon used to make solar cells was recently as high as $300 per kilogram. But the newest contracts have prices as low as $50 a kilogram.

You know, the same thing happened with computer chips – also made out of silicon. The price paid for the same performance came down by 50 percent every 18 months – year after year, and that’s what’s happened for 40 years in a row.

To those who argue that we do not yet have the technology to accomplish these results with renewable energy: I ask them to come with me to meet the entrepreneurs who will drive this revolution. I’ve seen what they are doing and I have no doubt that we can meet this challenge.

To those who say the costs are still too high: I ask them to consider whether the costs of oil and coal will ever stop increasing if we keep relying on quickly depleting energy sources to feed a rapidly growing demand all around the world. When demand for oil and coal increases, their price goes up. When demand for solar cells increases, the price often comes down.

When we send money to foreign countries to buy nearly 70 percent of the oil we use every day, they build new skyscrapers and we lose jobs. When we spend that money building solar arrays and windmills, we build competitive industries and gain jobs here at home.

Of course, there are those who will tell us this can’t be done. Some of the voices we hear are the defenders of the status quo – the ones with a vested interest in perpetuating the current system, no matter how high a price the rest of us will have to pay. But even those who reap the profits of the carbon age have to recognize the inevitability of its demise. As one OPEC oil minister observed, “The Stone Age didn’t end because of a shortage of stones.”

To those who say 10 years is not enough time, I respectfully ask them to consider what the world’s scientists are telling us about the risks we face if we don’t act in 10 years. The leading experts predict that we have less than 10 years to make dramatic changes in our global warming pollution lest we lose our ability to ever recover from this environmental crisis. When the use of oil and coal goes up, pollution goes up. When the use of solar, wind and geothermal increases, pollution comes down.

To those who say the challenge is not politically viable: I suggest they go before the American people and try to defend the status quo. Then bear witness to the people’s appetite for change.

I for one do not believe our country can withstand 10 more years of the status quo. Our families cannot stand 10 more years of gas price increases. Our workers cannot stand 10 more years of job losses and outsourcing of factories. Our economy cannot stand 10 more years of sending $2 billion every 24 hours to foreign countries for oil. And our soldiers and their families cannot take another 10 years of repeated troop deployments to dangerous regions that just happen to have large oil supplies.

What could we do instead for the next 10 years? What should we do during the next 10 years? Some of our greatest accomplishments as a nation have resulted from commitments to reach a goal that fell well beyond the next election: the Marshall Plan, Social Security, the interstate highway system. But a political promise to do something 40 years from now is universally ignored because everyone knows that it’s meaningless. Ten years is about the maximum time that we as a nation can hold a steady aim and hit our target.

When President John F. Kennedy challenged our nation to land a man on the moon and bring him back safely in 10 years, many people doubted we could accomplish that goal. But 8 years and 2 months later, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the surface of the moon.

To be sure, reaching the goal of 100 percent renewable and truly clean electricity within 10 years will require us to overcome many obstacles. At present, for example, we do not have a unified national grid that is sufficiently advanced to link the areas where the sun shines and the wind blows to the cities in the East and the West that need the electricity. Our national electric grid is critical infrastructure, as vital to the health and security of our economy as our highways and telecommunication networks. Today, our grids are antiquated, fragile, and vulnerable to cascading failure. Power outages and defects in the current grid system cost US businesses more than $120 billion dollars a year. It has to be upgraded anyway.

We could further increase the value and efficiency of a Unified National Grid by helping our struggling auto giants switch to the manufacture of plug-in electric cars. An electric vehicle fleet would sharply reduce the cost of driving a car, reduce pollution, and increase the flexibility of our electricity grid.

At the same time, of course, we need to greatly improve our commitment to efficiency and conservation. That’s the best investment we can make.

America’s transition to renewable energy sources must also include adequate provisions to assist those Americans who would unfairly face hardship. For example, we must recognize those who have toiled in dangerous conditions to bring us our present energy supply. We should guarantee good jobs in the fresh air and sunshine for any coal miner displaced by impacts on the coal industry. Every single one of them.

Of course, we could and should speed up this transition by insisting that the price of carbon-based energy include the costs of the environmental damage it causes. I have long supported a sharp reduction in payroll taxes with the difference made up in CO2 taxes. We should tax what we burn, not what we earn. This is the single most important policy change we can make.

In order to foster international cooperation, it is also essential that the United States rejoin the global community and lead efforts to secure an international treaty at Copenhagen in December of next year that includes a cap on CO2 emissions and a global partnership that recognizes the necessity of addressing the threats of extreme poverty and disease as part of the world’s agenda for solving the climate crisis.

Of course the greatest obstacle to meeting the challenge of 100 percent renewable electricity in 10 years may be the deep dysfunction of our politics and our self-governing system as it exists today. In recent years, our politics has tended toward incremental proposals made up of small policies designed to avoid offending special interests, alternating with occasional baby steps in the right direction. Our democracy has become sclerotic at a time when these crises require boldness.

It is only a truly dysfunctional system that would buy into the perverse logic that the short-term answer to high gasoline prices is drilling for more oil ten years from now.

Am I the only one who finds it strange that our government so often adopts a so-called solution that has absolutely nothing to do with the problem it is supposed to address? When people rightly complain about higher gasoline prices, we propose to give more money to the oil companies and pretend that they’re going to bring gasoline prices down. It will do nothing of the sort, and everyone knows it. If we keep going back to the same policies that have never ever worked in the past and have served only to produce the highest gasoline prices in history alongside the greatest oil company profits in history, nobody should be surprised if we get the same result over and over again. But the Congress may be poised to move in that direction anyway because some of them are being stampeded by lobbyists for special interests that know how to make the system work for them instead of the American people.

If you want to know the truth about gasoline prices, here it is: the exploding demand for oil, especially in places like China, is overwhelming the rate of new discoveries by so much that oil prices are almost certain to continue upward over time no matter what the oil companies promise. And politicians cannot bring gasoline prices down in the short term.

However, there actually is one extremely effective way to bring the costs of driving a car way down within a few short years. The way to bring gas prices down is to end our dependence on oil and use the renewable sources that can give us the equivalent of $1 per gallon gasoline.

Many Americans have begun to wonder whether or not we’ve simply lost our appetite for bold policy solutions. And folks who claim to know how our system works these days have told us we might as well forget about our political system doing anything bold, especially if it is contrary to the wishes of special interests. And I’ve got to admit, that sure seems to be the way things have been going. But I’ve begun to hear different voices in this country from people who are not only tired of baby steps and special interest politics, but are hungry for a new, different and bold approach.

We are on the eve of a presidential election. We are in the midst of an international climate treaty process that will conclude its work before the end of the first year of the new president’s term. It is a great error to say that the United States must wait for others to join us in this matter. In fact, we must move first, because that is the key to getting others to follow; and because moving first is in our own national interest.

So I ask you to join with me to call on every candidate, at every level, to accept this challenge – for America to be running on 100 percent zero-carbon electricity in 10 years. It’s time for us to move beyond empty rhetoric. We need to act now.

This is a generational moment. A moment when we decide our own path and our collective fate. I’m asking you – each of you – to join me and build this future. Please join the WE campaign at wecansolveit.org.

We need you. And we need you now. We’re committed to changing not just light bulbs, but laws. And laws will only change with leadership.

On July 16, 1969, the United States of America was finally ready to meet President Kennedy’s challenge of landing Americans on the moon. I will never forget standing beside my father a few miles from the launch site, waiting for the giant Saturn 5 rocket to lift Apollo 11 into the sky. I was a young man, 21 years old, who had graduated from college a month before and was enlisting in the United States Army three weeks later.

I will never forget the inspiration of those minutes. The power and the vibration of the giant rocket’s engines shook my entire body. As I watched the rocket rise, slowly at first and then with great speed, the sound was deafening. We craned our necks to follow its path until we were looking straight up into the air. And then four days later, I watched along with hundreds of millions of others around the world as Neil Armstrong took one small step to the surface of the moon and changed the history of the human race.

We must now lift our nation to reach another goal that will change history. Our entire civilization depends upon us now embarking on a new journey of exploration and discovery. Our success depends on our willingness as a people to undertake this journey and to complete it within 10 years. Once again, we have an opportunity to take a giant leap for humankind.

Let us heed the call.  The crisis beckons us.  The time for change is now!  We can no longer wait.  The damage we have done must be repaired, and only humans can stop themselves from doing greater harm.  Please, cause no more destruction.  Consider daily deeds.  May we ponder the energy used and embrace the environment,  Mother Earth depends on us.

Al Gore, I, and all of nature thank you for all you do in the present to restore a healthy planet.  Let us not hesitate.  May we each do a bit more to ensure our Earth will be better.  Together we can repower and empower every entity if we work as one.  We Can Solve It, the climate crisis!  

The First Sign of Summer




To view the original art, please travel to The First Sign of Summer

copyright © 2008.  Andrew Wahl.  Off The Wahl Perspective.

I’m of mixed mind about the recent surge in gas prices.  Part of me realizes that pocketbook pain is the only thing that will get many Americans to reassess our gas-guzzling lifestyle.  Cutting back on fossil fuels would be good news, both for the environment and our national security.  But, on the other hand, our economy has been fueled by cheap gas prices for decades, and I fear it is an already-strapped working class that will disproportionately bear this pain.  My latest toon, “Hitting the Road (Summer 2008)” [Archive No. 0820], tries to capture the current mood.

Till next week,

Andrew

toon@offthewahl.com

Clinton, Obama, Citizens; Our Children’s Future is in Your Hands



Children

“Ringing” TV Ad

copyright © 2008 Betsy L. Angert

Be it 3 Ante Meridian or 2 Post Meridian, a person proud to be a fighter will see enemies on every avenue.  An individual who believes, if we are to bring about peace, we must communicate with those who do not share our values, will act on the courage of his or her convictions.  A defensive stance, or a diplomatic demeanor, in a time of crisis will make a difference.  

On the issues, the two Democratic Presidential hopefuls are mostly, in agreement.  Neither proposes the depth of change some had hoped for.  However, each will and has altered history.

Those on the “Right” are not wrong.  Republicans purely reflect principles that call for freedom through independence.  Capitalists, Industrialists, Entrepreneurs envision a world where every person, separately, is their own highest priority.  Each man, woman, or child must fend for them selves.  War is likely when those who inhibit the planet are not one.

Sovereignty or a need to dominate, divides us.  Individuality is the battle cry for those who think it possible to pull ones’ self up by his or her bootstraps.  Interdependence brings unity.  

A pugilist, even when declared a populace or a Progressive, essentially believes there are foes.  An action antagonizes those whose heart is filled with fear.  Reactive engagements rule when one is petrified, titles others as a threat, or labels some terrorists.

When the Presidential aspirants are similar in scope, Americans must consider what some would argue is personal.  However, in politics, as in life, all that we believe to be true is intimately our own perspective.  Hence, citizens must choose what they think is best for them.  

When the telephone rings, at any hour, and children are fast asleep in cozy and comfortable chaises, who would you wish to answer the call?  If the respondent is a person who consistently manifests calm, and communicates a deep desire for global tranquility, then perchance, that individual will not do as he defines as a “disgrace.” A President willing to engage in diplomatic peace talks from day one, may discuss the dynamics of a situation before he or she declares war.

If the President of the United States believes foreign Heads of State will use summits as a means for “propaganda,” then, conflict is inevitable.  To shun, or to be suspicious, is to show angst.  Apprehension leads to aggression.  People feel a need to prove they are powerful when they are filled with fear.  Might does not make right; it only leads to death and destruction.

Do Americans want a leader ready to leap into battle, or would we prefer a President prepared to work for peace?

Let us each ponder the probity of global harmony.  Might we perpend that tranquility can be more than a theory?  When we cast a ballot, let us consider imminent combat and intentional communication.  Which would you choose?  Heed the call.  Our children’s future is in our hands.

The Call.  The Consequences . . .

Call for Impeachment; Sign the Petition. Gonzales Must Go


The President won’t fire him — but YOU can.  YouTube.

© copyright 2007 Betsy L. Angert. BeThink.org

My hope is to recruit a volunteer force, one that does not enlist for they need the funds to secure their future.  I long to enroll unpaid assistance committed to the cause.  Let us clean the government and grant justice for all. 

My plea could go on and on.  There is much evidence to substantiate claims.  Our current Attorney General, Alberto Gonzales is unfit for his commission.

So discredited has Gonzales become since Congress began looking into the firings of eight U.S. attorneys that the Senate plans to take a no-confidence vote that, while non-binding, will tell the White House that only Gonzales’ departure will satisfy.

Five Republican senators have urged Gonzales to resign, and even Sen. Pat Roberts of Kansas, a zealous Bush supporter, said of a possible resignation, “When you have to spend more time up here on Capitol Hill instead of running the Justice Department, maybe you ought to think about it.”

The calls for the resignation or impeachment of the impaired Attorney General are climbing daily.  After last week’s disclosure, revealing that Alberto Gonzales is a man on the run, and has been since before taking his current position, more Republicans are relenting.  Those on the “Right” say this man has got to go.  He runs from the law.  He races to the sickbed of his superior, intending only to persuade, dissuade, not to console. Alberto Gonzales leaps to conclusions and consults only with his cohorts, regardless of criminal intent.

Gonzales Hospital Episode Detailed
Ailing Ashcroft Pressured on Spy Program, Former Deputy Says
By Dan Eggen and Paul Kane?
Washington Post.?
Wednesday, May 16, 2007; A01

On the night of March 10, 2004, as Attorney General John D. Ashcroft lay ill in an intensive-care unit, his deputy, James B. Comey, received an urgent call.

White House Counsel Alberto R. Gonzales and President Bush’s chief of staff, Andrew H. Card Jr., were on their way to the hospital to persuade Ashcroft to reauthorize Bush’s domestic surveillance program, which the Justice Department had just determined was illegal.

In vivid testimony to the Senate Judiciary Committee yesterday, Comey said he alerted FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III and raced, sirens blaring, to join Ashcroft in his hospital room, arriving minutes before Gonzales and Card. Ashcroft, summoning the strength to lift his head and speak, refused to sign the papers they had brought. Gonzales and Card, who had never acknowledged Comey’s presence in the room, turned and left.

The sickbed visit was the start of a dramatic showdown between the White House and the Justice Department in early 2004 that, according to Comey, was resolved only when Bush overruled Gonzales and Card. But that was not before Ashcroft, Comey, Mueller and their aides prepared a mass resignation, Comey said. The domestic spying by the National Security Agency continued for several weeks without Justice approval, he said.

“I was angry,” Comey testified. “I thought I just witnessed an effort to take advantage of a very sick man, who did not have the powers of the attorney general because they had been transferred to me.”

The broad outlines of the hospital-room conflict have been reported previously, but without Comey’s gripping detail of efforts by Card, who has left the White House, and Gonzales, now the attorney general. His account appears to present yet another challenge to the embattled Gonzales, who has strongly defended the surveillance program’s legality and is embroiled in a battle with Congress over the dismissals of nine U.S. attorneys last year.

It also marks the first public acknowledgment that the Justice Department found the original surveillance program illegal, more than two years after it began.

Gonzales, who has rejected lawmakers’ call for his resignation, continued yesterday to play down his own role in the dismissals. He identified his deputy, Paul J. McNulty, who announced his resignation Monday, as the aide most responsible for the firings.

“You have to remember, at the end of the day, the recommendations reflected the views of the deputy attorney general,” Gonzales said at the National Press Club. “The deputy attorney general would know best about the qualifications and the experiences of the United States attorneys community, and he signed off on the names,” he added.

Those comments appear to differ, at least in emphasis, from earlier remarks by Gonzales, who has previously laid much of the responsibility for the dismissals on his ex-chief of staff, D. Kyle Sampson. They stand in contrast to testimony and statements from McNulty . . .

Contrast, contrary and conflicting statements, these rule under the auspices of this Attorney General.  If you believe as many do, all except perhaps, the President of the United States of America, then please sign the petition.  State your conviction.  Declare your desire.  Proclaim loudly, Attorney General Gonzales is not the man for this job. 

Justice is not served when the man overseeing the Department does not understand the constructs of fairness, impartiality, or honesty.  The integrity of Alberto Gonzales is in question.  Each of his pronouncements is dubious.  He hesitates, vacillates, and is uncertain.  How can a nation place their faith in a man that abuses his power, commits high crimes and misdemeanors, and yet, does not recall when or if he decided to do so. 

America we need to stand united. We have been divided and falling for too long.  Let us descend no more.  Join hands.  Stroke those keyboards.  Grab the telephone. Call your Congressional Representative.  Pick up a pen and state your opposition.  Alberto Gonzales may be serving at the pleasure of the President; nevertheless, he does not act with our best interests in mind.  Impeach the mischief-maker before it is too late. 

Petition, Pronouncements, and Pondering . . .

  • Impeach Gonzales.
  • Impeachment by The People,  By Howard Zinn.  Pasadena Weekly.
  • Attorney General Alberto Gonzales; Bush Loyalty Factor,  By Betsy L. Angert.  BeThink.org. April 1, 2007
  • The Law. Bush Versus Attorney General Gonzales, By Betsy L. Angert.  BeThink.org. May 27, 2006
  • Resigning. Bush, Cheney, Gonzales . . . By Betsy L. Angert.  BeThink.org.  March 16, 2007
  • Just go: AG Gonzales too discredited to continue. Editorial.  The Salt Lake City Tribune. May 21, 2007
  • Republicans upset with Gonzales’ effort to make his deputy the fall guy, By Robert Novak.  Chicago Tribune. May 20, 2007
  • Gonzales Hospital Episode Detailed, Ailing Ashcroft Pressured on Spy Program, Former Deputy Says. By Dan Eggen and Paul Kane.  Washington Post.?Wednesday, May 16, 2007; Page A01